Wednesday, September 30, 2009

The Little Boy and the Old Man

by Shel Silverstein

Said the little boy, "Sometimes I drop my spoon."
Said the old man, "I do that too."
The little boy whispered, "I wet my pants."
"I do that too," laughed the little old man.
Said the little boy, "I often cry."
The old man nodded, "So do I."
"But worst of all," said the boy, "it seems
Grown-ups don't pay attention to me."
And he felt the warmth of a wrinkled old hand.
"I know what you mean," said the little old man.


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great!!! thanks, lemmy.

just monkeying around.

Blue Gal: Pulp Fiction? Retired US Generals bring down wrath of God on Liz Cheney.

Blue Gal: Pulp Fiction? Retired US Generals bring down wrath of God on Liz Cheney.

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i still have 3 boxes in my freezer!
Your help is essential to keep the

Federal Funding for NF Research.

By contacting your congressman and requesting their support for the

Department of Defense NF Research Program of $25 Million for Fiscal 2010.

Dear Friends,

Your participation is CRITICAL. The Senate is expected to consider their FY10 Defense Appropriations bill this week on the Senate floor and a conference with the House to work out the differences in the two bills will follow very quickly since the end of the fiscal year is fast approaching (September 30). With a quick turnaround expected, it is important that you all contact your members of Congress ASAP to encourage them to include in conference the $25 million included in the House version of the FY10 Defense Appropriations bill for the Army's Neurofibromatosis Research Program. Since the Senate bill does not include money for the Army's NF Research Program (this is not unusual), it is important to do all you can to encourage members in both the House and Senate to include the House number ($25 million) in conference of the defense appropriations bill.

Now is the time to write to your Senators and Repr esentatives to tell them how important NF research is to you. If you don't tell them, they don't know!!

A sample letter is here for you to use. To find your Representatives visit Email or fax is the best way to contact them.

Thank you for your support!


Neurofibromatosis, Inc.

P.O. Box 66884

Chicago, IL 60666

630-627-1115 phone

630-627-1117 fax

Neurofibromatosis, Inc.-Mid-Atlantic

8855 Annapolis Rd., Ste. 110

Lanham, MD 20706

Tel: 301-577-8984

Fax: 301-577-0016

Toll-free: 1-866-261-1271



got salt for the water softener. finally can use it now that the hookup to a sewer is complete. we have city water here and it's HARD! it dries the skin and etches the glasses.

Thriving with Neurofibromatosis: Doctor and Health Care Facts

Thriving with Neurofibromatosis: Doctor and Health Care Facts

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Newsmax: Military Coup Would Take Care Of

and just suspend rational thought for a sec and then imagine what life would be like under a military dictatorshhip.

i mean, you don't really think the military would just hand the reigns over to the republicans do you?

Newsmax: Military Coup Would Take Care Of "Obama Problem" | Crooks and Liars

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by Seamus Heaney

A rowan like a lipsticked girl.
Between the by-road and the main road
Alder trees at a wet and dripping distance
Stand off among the rushes.

There are the mud-flowers of dialect
And the immortelles of perfect pitch
And that moment when the bird sings very close
To the music of what happens.
been outside 4 times with max. i swear, it's getting colder!

Generals Say, ?The Cheneys Are Fearmongering Idiots? | Reconstitution 2.0

Generals Say, ?The Cheneys Are Fearmongering Idiots? | Reconstitution 2.0

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wet-cold-grey. deja vu? nope, just pittsburgh/

Tuesday, September 29, 2009

A mouse looked through the crack

In the wall to see the farmer

And his wife open a package.

What food might this contain?'

The mouse wondered - - -
He was devastated to discover

It was a mousetrap.

Retreating to the farmyard,

The mouse proclaimed the warning :

There is a mousetrap in the house!
There is a mousetrap in the house!'

The chicken clucked and scratched,

Raised her head and said,

'Mr. Mouse, I can tell this is a grave

Concern to you, but it is of no consequence

To me. I cannot be bothered by it.'

The mouse turned to the pig and told him,

'There is a mousetrap in the house!

There is a mousetrap in the house!'

The pig sympathized, but said,

'I am so very sorry, Mr. Mouse,

But there is nothing I can do about it

But pray. Be assured you are in my prayers.'

The mouse turned to the cow and said,
There is a mousetrap in the house!

There is a mousetrap in the house!'

The cow said, 'Wow, Mr. Mouse.

I'm sorry for you,

But it's no skin off my nose.'

So, the mouse returned to the house,

Head down and dejected,

To face the farmer's mousetrap . . . Alone.

That very night a sound was heard

Throughout the house -- like the sound

Of a mousetrap catching its prey.

The farmer's wife rushed to see what was caught.

In the darkness, she did not see

it was a venomous snake whose

tail the trap had caught.

The snake bit the farmer's wife.

The farmer rushed her to the hospital,

And she returned home with a fever.

Everyone knows you treat a fever

With fresh chicken soup, so the farmer

Took his hatchet to the farmyard

For the soup's main ingredient.

But his wife's sickness continued,

So friends and neighbors came to sit

with her around the clock.

To feed them,

The farmer butchered the pig.

The farmer's wife did not get well;

She died.

So many people came for her funeral,

The farmer had the cow slaughtered to

Provide enough meat for all of them.

The mouse looked upon it all from his

Crack in the wall with great sadness.

So, the next time you hear someone is

Facing a problem and think it doesn't

Concern you, remember ----

When one of us is threatened,

We are all at risk.

We are all involved in this

Journey called life.

We must keep an eye out for

One another and make an extra effort

To encourage one another.

15 Weird Things Ancient Cultures Used To Do While Stoned | Stupid Idiots

15 Weird Things Ancient Cultures Used To Do While Stoned | Stupid Idiots

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made chicken veggie soup to help clean out the fridge and there's the apple cranberry crisp in the oven and my peeler/corer and C clamp and the hail box of apples with a few pears as well, that are left. i'll be giving the rest of the box away.

i just peeled and sliced about half a box of apples. thankfully i have one of those apple peeler corer thingys.

froze most of it for later in the season but i'm going to make an apple cranberry crisp later.

Meg Whitman Registered To Vote At 46, Became A Republican 2 Years Ago

i swear, it's just a game to some weathy people.

Meg Whitman Registered To Vote At 46, Became A Republican 2 Years Ago

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Abandoned Love

I can hear the turning of the key
I've been deceived by the clown inside of me.
I thought that he was righteous but he's vain
Oh, something's a-telling me I wear the ball and chain.

My patron saint is a-fighting with a ghost
He's always off somewhere when I need him most.
The Spanish moon is rising on the hill
But my heart is a-tellin' me I love ya still.

I come back to the town from the flaming moon
I see you in the streets, I begin to swoon.
I love to see you dress before the mirror
Won't you let me in your room one time 'fore I finally disappear?

Everybody's wearing a disguise
To hide what they've got left behind their eyes.
But me, I can't cover what I am
Wherever the children go I'll follow them.

I march in the parade of liberty
But as long as I love you I'm not free.
How long must I suffer such abuse
Won't you let me see you smile one time before I turn you loose?

I've given up the game, I've got to leave,
The pot of gold is only make-believe.
The treasure can't be found by men who search
Whose gods are dead and whose queens are in the church.

We sat in an empty theater and we kissed,
I asked ya please to cross me off-a your list.
My head tells me it's time to make a change
But my heart is telling me I love ya but you're strange.

One more time at midnight, near the wall
Take off your heavy make-up and your shawl.
Won't you descend from the throne, from where you sit?
Let me feel your love one more time before I abandon it.

Copyright ©1975 Ram's Horn Music

DNA Casts Doubt on Hitler Suicide Story

DNA Casts Doubt on Hitler Suicide Story

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wow, chilly this morning!!!!

i have a big box of apples and pears from a friend's farm that i guess i will be peeling and freezing etc. other than that, no real plans.

Monday, September 28, 2009

Lucy of 'Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds' Fame Dies -

Lucy of 'Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds' Fame Dies -

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cleaned out my "favorite places" on the computer-must have been 60 or more!
it stopped raining. the wind gusts are nasty tho.
the new windows have made a BIG difference in the temperatures in the house.

i would have had to have the heat on if it were not for them. so far/so good!
that will help with the bills.

have some grass spouting over the mud patches from the sewer pipe instillation.

cool. i hope it grows enough before the really cold weather hits.

i still come into the house expecting to see my message light blinking with a call or two or three from my mother. habits are hard things.

i put out some extra seed for the birds and squirrels and chipmunks.

max STILL refuses to walk down the shared driveway.

wonder if harry came round for a little haunt?

The Angry Drunk Bureaucrat

too funny...

The Angry Drunk Bureaucrat

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up, rain, bad wind gusts, grey.
something over the hillside has been spooking max since saturday.
he won't go near there. spooks me too.

Sunday, September 27, 2009

well, after my little sweetie left about 1:15, i took a small nap and then decided to wash my gram's depression glass that she gave me. i've love it since i was a small child. thin as egg shells and delicate pink with an etched rim. i only have some water goblets and a few small wine glasses but i love them.
so i washed them and dusted the shelf they sit on and replaced them and while i was at it i did her old tea set as well.

little bit at a time and the fall clean up will be done.

Top 10 Love Songs - AOL Radio Blog

Top 10 Love Songs - AOL Radio Blog

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Pam's House Blend:: Making Joe the Plumber Look Like a Nobel Laureate

Pam's House Blend:: Making Joe the Plumber Look Like a Nobel Laureate

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Soldiers Inspire Ryan Newman, NASCAR's Best -- Nascar and Racing FanHouse

Soldiers Inspire Ryan Newman, NASCAR's Best -- Nascar and Racing FanHouse

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sweetie's still asleep. it's pouring out, STILL!

max and i have dragged wet leaves in 3 times this morning.
i've read the paper and am just waiting to make breakfast for her when she wakes.

Saturday, September 26, 2009

night night.

The PJ's You Are Most Like: Comfortable PJ's

You're a bit conservative, traditional, and tend to follow conventions

You have an understated, easy sexiness that men love

People instantly find comfort in you, and you're a "best friend" to many.

"There is nothing worse than aggressive stupidity."

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Think Progress » Flashback: Bachmann Spread Fears Of Scary Stalking Census Workers

Think Progress » Flashback: Bachmann Spread Fears Of Scary Stalking Census Workers

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I took the 43 Things Personality Quiz and found out I'm a
Spiritual Self-Knowing Extrovert

t r u t h o u t | The Racist Truth About Beck and Limbaugh

t r u t h o u t | The Racist Truth About Beck and Limbaugh

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thanks to pudd'n boy for this. i like it!

Census Worker Bill Sparkman's Hanging Body Was Naked, Bound

Census Worker Bill Sparkman's Hanging Body Was Naked, Bound

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Blue Gal

Blue Gal

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my little sweetie is coming for breakfast and to stay overnight-big fun ahead!

Friday, September 25, 2009

o.k. babies. everyone's leaving town-let's have some FUN!!!!!
Sunday, October 11, 2009
Zombie Fest and Walk of the Dead
Monroeville, PA


2:00 PM - 6:00 PM
Zombie Fest in The Monroeville Mall Parking Lot

(behind Boscovs, across from Mall Annex)

Register and meet the cast of It's Alive. Apply make up if you haven't already.
The Pittsburgh Community Food Bank will be accepting your donations at this time.
Donations are not mandatory but every one must sign in for the Guinness book.
There is no registration fee - this is a free event.

Outdoor Zombie Fest events will include:

Live Bands and Entertainment
Celebrity Appearances
Zombie Olympics
Brain Eating Contest
Ugly Pageant

6:00 PM
Fourth Annual Walk of the Dead

Zombies will enter the mall and begin the spectacle of reenacting the scenes from their favorite zombie films. It is extremely important to stay in character while in the mall. If you are being filmed, please do not smile or wave, stay in zombie mode. If you want to be seen on TV, in the newspaper, etc. please stay in zombie mode

7:00 PM
The Zombie Ball at Houlihans in the Mall

After a hard day of shambling, it's time to party down with the undead.

DJ, drink specials, and the kitchen is open until 9:00 PM.

No Cover Charge.

Will Bunch: The Real Reason They Want ACORN to Fail

Will Bunch: The Real Reason They Want ACORN to Fail

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it's a perfect fall day today.
of course, that means while everyone else still has short sleeves and tennys i have sweatshirt and boots on.

i'll be glad when the g20 ends.

doing some laundry and just kicking round here.
layla is snuggled in behind the bed pillows. max is sacked out on the back of the love seat and bob is on the couch downstairs. tough life, huh?

Pirates Add G-20 Protesters to Roster

Pirates Add G-20 Protesters to Roster

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RiffTrax: Plan 9 from Outer Space ENCORE

RiffTrax: Plan 9 from Outer Space ENCORE

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Dream Within A Dream

by Edgar Allan Poe

Take this kiss upon the brow!
And, in parting from you now,
Thus much let me avow--
You are not wrong, who deem
That my days have been a dream;
Yet if hope has flown away
In a night, or in a day,
In a vision, or in none,
Is it therefore the less gone?
All that we see or seem
Is but a dream within a dream.

I stand amid the roar
Of a surf-tormented shore,
And I hold within my hand
Grains of the golden sand--
How few! yet how they creep
Through my fingers to the deep,
While I weep--while I weep!
O God! can I not grasp
Them with a tighter clasp?
O God! can I not save
One from the pitiless wave?
Is all that we see or seem
But a dream within a dream?
it's past time to ratchet down the over the top bullshit before more people get killed!

just freaking amazing!

A Scathingly Brilliant Idea on How To Get Real Healthcare Reform | Crooks and Liars

makes sense to me ; )

A Scathingly Brilliant Idea on How To Get Real Healthcare Reform | Crooks and Liars

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Rescue Team Uses Saw to Free Trapped Penis | NBC Los Angeles

me-alrighty then!

Rescue Team Uses Saw to Free Trapped Penis | NBC Los Angeles

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What is the difference between an elephant and a flea?
An elephant can have fleas but a flea can't have elephants !

Why did the elephant paint his toenails red ?
So he could hide in the cherry tree !

How do you know when there is an elephant under your bed ?
When your nose touches the ceiling !

What do you call an elephant that flies ?
A jumbo jet !

What do you get if you cross an elephant and a kangaroo ?
Big holes all over Australia !

How does an elephant get down from a tree ?
He sits on a leaf and waits till autumn !

Why did the elephant paint himself with different colours?
Because he wanted to hide in the colouring box !

Why were the elephants thrown out of the swimming pool ?
Because they couldn't hold their trunks up !

What time is it when an elephant sits on the fence ?
Time to fix the fence !

Why does an elephant wear sneakers ?
So that he can sneak up on mice !

Thursday, September 24, 2009

Glenn Beck's Twisted Brain: Pol Pot Less Reprehensible Than Woodrow Wilson, Tiger Woods, and FDR | Media and Technology | AlterNet

NUTCASEGlenn Beck's Twisted Brain: Pol Pot Less Reprehensible Than Woodrow Wilson, Tiger Woods, and FDR | Media and Technology | AlterNet

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Pittsburgh: From grime to glam -

Pittsburgh: From grime to glam -

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New AIDS Vaccine

New AIDS Vaccine

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yes, it is true!

2 Political Junkies

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Whoa, baby! Woman delivers 19-pound boy - Parenting & Family

geeeezzzzWhoa, baby! Woman delivers 19-pound boy - Parenting & Family

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Dear NF Members between the ages of 16 and 25,

Here is a forwarded message from the producer of the MTV program about neurofibromatosis.

Casting Call:

True Life: I Have Neurofibromatosis (USA ONLY)

Are you living with Neurofibromatosis? Do you have visible tumors or spots on your skin that you wish you could get rid of for good? Were you recently diagnosed with NF, or have you had it as long as you can remember? Are you planning on having surgery to remove a tumor or undergoing treatment to stop its growth? Is NF causing problems for you at school, at work, or in social situations? If so, MTV wants to hear your story.

If you appear to be between the ages of 16 and 25, please email with the details. Please include your name, location, phone number and photograph if possible.

Please take a look at our link on the front page of NF INC’S WEBSITE:

Neurofibromatosis, Inc.-Mid-Atlantic

8855 Annapolis Rd., Ste. 110

Lanham, MD 20706

Tel: 301-577-8984

Fax: 301-577-0016

Toll-free: 1-866-261-1271



Pittsburgh Touts Revitalization at G-20, Boards Up Downtown

Pittsburgh Touts Revitalization at G-20, Boards Up Downtown

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the hawks have been flying low and keening for the past week or two.

leaves are beginning to litter the ground.

fall is falling hard.
up and doing chores round here.
nothing new.

Wednesday, September 23, 2009

Blue Gal: The real problem for the teabaggers#comments#comments

me- spot on!!!!!

Blue Gal: The real problem for the teabaggers#comments#comments

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AP source: Census worker hanged with 'fed' on body


AP source: Census worker hanged with 'fed' on body

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Local Man Incensed That Autumnal Equinox Isn

Local Man Incensed That Autumnal Equinox Isn’t What It Used To Be

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House GOPer Seeks Co-Sponsors For Pet Health Care Tax Benefit

House GOPer Seeks Co-Sponsors For Pet Health Care Tax Benefit

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geeezzz- gave max a bath and got myself cleaned up and went to go grocery shopping. sun was out, warm, in fact the parking lot was hot.

get all the stuff paid for and bam, the skies opened up and it poured as if someone should be building an ark somewhere!

the water was a good 2 inches over my ankles before we made it all the way to where the car was! i was soaked. the groceries were soaked! ugh! halfway home, the rain stopped and the sun came out.

pittsburgh weather- get used to it G20.

GreenPeace G-20 Summit Protestors Attempt To Hang Sign From West End Bridge -

GreenPeace G-20 Summit Protestors Attempt To Hang Sign From West End Bridge -

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Official site of the Pittsburgh Steelers - Video Center

Official site of the Pittsburgh Steelers - Video Center

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wish this had been caught on video.

i had max out and there was a big rustling in the hedge right by where we were standing.

out popped, and i mean POPPED and PLUNKED right in from of max's nose, two chipmunks in a fall chippymunk battle. they were wrapped up in a little squeaking ball o' fur.

they jumped apart with a loud squeak from each and headed in opposite directions and max was stunned for a second or two.

it must have looked hysterical to an observer. i know i laughed out loud!

Poetry & Poets in Rags

Poetry & Poets in Rags

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in pittsburgh we have a saying, "you can't get there from here."

well, you really CAN'T during the summit.

Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Was Scientist Malcolm Casadaban Killed by Plague?

for cripes sake!!!

Was Scientist Malcolm Casadaban Killed by Plague?

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Tom DeLay shakes his

Tom DeLay shakes his "Wild Thing" on "Dancing with the Stars" (video) | Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington

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in order to really get this you have to have watched the videos put out by kirk c.

he really thinks that people and dinosaurs coexisted. i know, i've watched his stuff for a few years now!

my tat this morning. healed quite nicely and no more itching!
making shredded beef sandwiches for dinner. i've got the beef in the crockpot.

i forgot to write about the wiener dog races at the first car cruise we went to. that was the one to benefit a firehouse.

it was the cutest thing!

i've never seen so many dachshunds in one place.

there was one little fellow that actually said, "BARK" when he barked. truly, like a person saying," BARK BARK BARK"

'The Best American Poetry 2009': Sonnets, vomit, and 'Mad Men' |

'The Best American Poetry 2009': Sonnets, vomit, and 'Mad Men' |

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Iran’s Ahmadinejad Denies Existence of Letterman Show Bandleader Paul Shaffer

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happy equinox!


2 Political Junkies

2 Political Junkies

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Video: Point Park University's 'Flash Mob' project

Video: Point Park University's 'Flash Mob' project

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light rain with helicopters and police. ; )

Monday, September 21, 2009

thanks gloria!
drizzle and it makes me ache- this is the time that i wish i had a hot tub. i'd stay in til i looked like a little prune!

A Spork in the Drawer: PA State Rep. Daryl Metcalfe Approves Of Male Rape

A Spork in the Drawer: PA State Rep. Daryl Metcalfe Approves Of Male Rape

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The Funniest Protest Signs Of 2009 (PHOTOS)

The Funniest Protest Signs Of 2009 (PHOTOS)

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i would think this would open up some eyes and minds.
at least, i hope so or we are all,lost.

On Sunday, September 13th, Captain Asaf Ramon, a young pilot who has just finished the course with distinction, fell down with his airplane during a routine practice flight. Asaf was the son of Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut who was killed with the Columbia in 2003.
We were speechless with grief.

A shooting star seared
our hearts, Asaf Ramon fell
down the same sky, same earth,
father and son both
flew high above the triviality of Ordinary

this is a poem by

Tammara Or Slilat

she is a member of the poetry kit with me.
she lives in Israel and when she sent this beautiful and heart touching poem in i asked if i could post it and the story behind it. she, being the gracious woman that she is ,agreed. this piece haunts me.

Sunday, September 20, 2009

Mitt Romney Defends Record as Mike Huckabee Wins Straw Poll at Values Voter Summit

Mitt Romney Defends Record as Mike Huckabee Wins Straw Poll at Values Voter Summit

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laundry done, grass seed down, bathroom closet cleaned out
litter pan cleaned, trash taken out and another thank you card written out.

went up to a local mall yesterday. they were having a car cruise and a big bike run for a marine fund. i got a tank top for me and a towel to give to the owls club and we all put money in the donation jar. it was a nice time.

Friday, September 18, 2009

Ms. Adventures on the Mon: BLOOMFIELD


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o.k. babies, it's friday. let's have a little FUN, shall we??

Daily Kos: State of the Nation

you have to read this twice to BELIEVE it-and it's from BUTLER!!!!

Daily Kos: State of the Nation

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my sister and i finished cleaning our mother's apartment today.
all of mom's things have been given away except for the few things that family members wanted.

it was an odd feeling. seeing it empty like it was went we first were moving mom in 2 years ago after my father died. closing and locking the door behind us and bringing the last of the cleaning supplies and my sister's rug scrubber down in the elevator and saying goodbye to nancy, one of the tenants there that i had come to know.

very odd feeling indeed!

Spirituality & Practice: Naming the Days Feature: Rosh Hashanah: Shanah Tovah

Spirituality & Practice: Naming the Days Feature: Rosh Hashanah: Shanah Tovah "Good Year", by Frederic and Mary Ann Brussat

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Spirituality & Practice: Naming the Days Feature: Navratri – Nine Nights of Meditation on the Divine Feminine, by Ami Bhalodkar

Spirituality & Practice: Naming the Days Feature: Navratri – Nine Nights of Meditation on the Divine Feminine, by Ami Bhalodkar

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The Progressive Puppy: Where Will Right-Wing Anger Lead?

a little history lesson

The Progressive Puppy: Where Will Right-Wing Anger Lead?

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a must see.

keep this in mind as you find that pre-existing conditions now include c-sections and domestic violence and more.

Weird Car News

Weird Car News

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i have this album. the corner is chewed from a puppy i had back then!

thanks maria!

2 Political Junkies

2 Political Junkies

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have to go later with my sister and finish the cleaning of my mom's apartment. then, that will be that.

lots of paperwork and legal stuff left and she didn't have all that much but the same procedures have to be followed as if she had.

gives me a headache.
friday-joke day:

Who is the biggest gangster in the sea?
Al Caprawn!

What do you get if you cross a nun and a chicken?
A pecking order!

Why did the silly kid stand on his head?
His feet were tired!

What does one star say to another star when they meet?
Glad to meteor!

Were you long in the hospital?
No, I was the same size that I am now!

How did the farmer fix his jeans?
With a cabbage patch!

Thursday, September 17, 2009

The 'Glenn Beck as Murderer' Meme: Vaccine or Infection? -- Politics Daily

The 'Glenn Beck as Murderer' Meme: Vaccine or Infection? -- Politics Daily

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it's been another terrific fallish day.
the vines that grow on the trunks of a lot of the oaks round here have turned a bright shiny red.

so very nice.
Courthouse News Service

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thanks fran/bg!

Raw Story » Limbaugh: We need segregated buses


Raw Story » Limbaugh: We need segregated buses

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i just pulled this out of the oven

foccacchio with romano cheese, black and red pepper flakes,garlic oil,basil, course kosher salt and crushed rosemary.

i used a different recipe for the dough. it's made with flour yeast baking powder oil oil salt and warm beer. worked out well.

Late Soldier Sgt. Jared Monti To Receive Nation's Top Honor

Late Soldier Sgt. Jared Monti To Receive Nation's Top Honor

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Building Rome in a Day

Building Rome in a Day

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thanks, eric

In Pittsburgh, It Takes Just 17 Syllables to Tell the G-20 How You Really Feel -

In Pittsburgh, It Takes Just 17 Syllables to Tell the G-20 How You Really Feel -

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Pelosi Warns Of Violence Over Heated Rhetoric, Chokes Up

Pelosi Warns Of Violence Over Heated Rhetoric, Chokes Up

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i think this is important. more than you might think while laughing about it.

Health Net ordered to pay $9 million after canceling cancer patient's policy --

Health Net ordered to pay $9 million after canceling cancer patient's policy --

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Thriving with Neurofibromatosis: Thriving Thursday

Thriving with Neurofibromatosis: Thriving Thursday

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may my heart always be open to little...

by E. E. Cummings

may my heart always be open to little
birds who are the secrets of living
whatever they sing is better than to know
and if men should not hear them men are old

may my mind stroll about hungry
and fearless and thirsty and supple
and even if it's sunday may i be wrong
for whenever men are right they are not young

and may myself do nothing usefully
and love yourself so more than truly
there's never been quite such a fool who could fail
pulling all the sky over him with one smile

the leaves here are turning already!

nothing new going on.

happy happy- pretty day!

Wednesday, September 16, 2009

yes, it's ADULT, yes, it's sick, but i like foamy(most of the time)

i'm willing to take the job. i sound just like this!
i just got a lovely sympathy card with a sweet handwritten note inside from my mom's doctor(mine too) he is a very good man. he enjoyed the heck out of my mother arguing with him.

Think Progress » Court rules that KBR employee’s gang rape wasn’t a personal injury ‘arising in the workplace.’

Think Progress » Court rules that KBR employee’s gang rape wasn’t a personal injury ‘arising in the workplace.’

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voted BEST commercial in europe.



Tuesday, September 15, 2009

night night babies!
nice quiet evening. i like it!

Text of the president's speech to the AFL-CIO - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review

Text of the president's speech to the AFL-CIO - Pittsburgh Tribune-Review

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Greenspan admits Iraq was about oil, as deaths put at 1.2m | World news | The Observer

and this is from greenspan-GREENSPAN...

Greenspan admits Iraq was about oil, as deaths put at 1.2m | World news | The Observer

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"Tea Party" Leader Melts Down On CNN: Obama Is An "Indonesian Muslim Turned Welfare Thug" (VIDEO)

"Tea Party" Leader Melts Down On CNN: Obama Is An "Indonesian Muslim Turned Welfare Thug" (VIDEO)

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Jon Stewart Returns, Slams Glenn Beck And Tea Party Protesters (VIDEO)

Jon Stewart Returns, Slams Glenn Beck And Tea Party Protesters (VIDEO)

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SEIU - Service Employees International Union - Republican Senators Vetoed Insurance Protection for Domestic Violence Victims

SEIU - Service Employees International Union - Republican Senators Vetoed Insurance Protection for Domestic Violence Victims

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yes- here's the def of fascism for you. maybe now some people may, MAY see that using the terminology that i've posted over the last 2 days, interchangeably just makes their lack of understanding and their sheep like dependence on right wing radio-talking points and FOX news stand out and make them look like fools or bigots or both. rant over.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Core tenets[show]
Nationalism · Authoritarianism · Third Position · Single party state · Dictatorship · Social Darwinism · Social interventionism · Indoctrination · Propaganda · Anti-intellectualism · Eugenics · Heroism · Militarism · Economic interventionism · Anti-communism
Definitions · Economics · Fascism and ideology · Fascism worldwide · Symbolism
Class collaboration · Corporatism · Heroic capitalism · National Socialism · National syndicalism · Populism · State capitalism · State socialism · Statism · Supercapitalism · Third Position · Totalitarianism · Yellow socialism
Arrow Cross Party · Austrofascism · Brazilian Integralism · Falange · 4th of August Regime · Iron Guard · Italian Fascism · Japanese fascism · Nazism · Rexism · Ustaše
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Ikki Kita
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Ante Pavelić
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The Doctrine of Fascism · Fascist manifesto · Mein Kampf · The Myth of the Twentieth Century
Axis powers · Black Brigades · Blackshirts · Blueshirts · Redshirts · Fascist International · Grand Council of Fascism · Greenshirts · Italian Nationalist Association · Schutzstaffel · Sturmabteilung
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Anti-fascists · British fascists · Fascists by country · Nazi ideologues
Related topics[show]
Anti-fascism · Clerical fascism · Cryptofascism · Ecofascism · European fascist ideologies · Fascism (epithet) · Hitler salute · Left-wing fascism · Neo-Fascism · Quadrumvirs · Racism · Roman salute · Social fascism · Palingenetic ultranationalism

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Fascism, pronounced /ˈfæʃɪzəm/, comprises a radical and authoritarian nationalist political ideology[1][2][3][4] and a corporatist economic ideology developed in Italy.[5] Fascists believe that nations and/or races are in perpetual conflict whereby only the strong can survive by being healthy, vital, and by asserting themselves in conflict against the weak.[6]

Fascists advocate the creation of a single-party state.[7] Fascist governments forbid and suppress criticism and opposition to the government and the fascist movement.[8] Fascism opposes class conflict, blames capitalist liberal democracies for its creation and communists for exploiting the concept.[9]

In the economic sphere, many fascist leaders have claimed to support a "Third Way" in economic policy, which they believed superior to both the rampant individualism of unrestrained capitalism and the severe control of state communism.[10][11] This was to be achieved by establishing significant government control over business and labour (Mussolini called his nation's system "the corporate state").[12][13] No common and concise definition exists for fascism and historians and political scientists disagree on what should be in any concise definition.[14]

Following the defeat of the Axis powers in World War II and the publicity surrounding the atrocities committed during the period of fascist governments, the term fascist has been used as a pejorative word.[15]

[edit] Etymology
The term fascismo is derived from the Italian word fascio, which means "bundle" or group, and from the Latin word fasces; a fasces was a bundle of sticks used symbolically for the power through unity. [16][17] The fasces, which consisted of a bundle of rods that were tied around an axe, were an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrates; they were carried by his Lictors and could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.[17]

Furthermore, the symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break.[18] This is a familiar theme throughout different forms of fascism; for example the Falange symbol is a bunch of arrows joined together by a yoke.[19]

[edit] Definitions
Main article: Definitions of fascism
Historians, political scientists, and other scholars have engaged in long and furious debates concerning the exact nature of fascism.[20] Since the 1990s, scholars like Stanley Payne, Roger Eatwell, Roger Griffin and Robert O. Paxton have begun to gather a rough consensus on the system's core tenets. Each form of fascism is distinct, leaving many definitions as too wide or too narrow.[21][22]

Griffin wrote:

[Fascism is] a genuinely revolutionary, trans-class form of anti-liberal, and in the last analysis, anti-conservative nationalism. As such it is an ideology deeply bound up with modernization and modernity, one which has assumed a considerable variety of external forms to adapt itself to the particular historical and national context in which it appears, and has drawn a wide range of cultural and intellectual currents, both left and right, anti-modern and pro-modern, to articulate itself as a body of ideas, slogans, and doctrine. In the inter-war period it manifested itself primarily in the form of an elite-led "armed party" which attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to generate a populist mass movement through a liturgical style of politics and a programme of radical policies which promised to overcome a threat posed by international socialism, to end the degeneration affecting the nation under liberalism, and to bring about a radical renewal of its social, political and cultural life as part of what was widely imagined to be the new era being inaugurated in Western civilization. The core mobilizing myth of fascism which conditions its ideology, propaganda, style of politics and actions is the vision of the nation's imminent rebirth from decadence.[23]

Paxton wrote that fascism is:

a form of political behavior marked by obsessive preoccupation with community decline, humiliation or victimhood and by compensatory cults of unity, energy and purity, in which a mass-based party of committed nationalist militants, working in uneasy but effective collaboration with traditional elites, abandons democratic liberties and pursues with redemptive violence and without ethical or legal restraints goals of internal cleansing and external expansion.[24]

[edit] Position in the political spectrum
The neutrality of this section is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (August 2009)

Fascism is normally described as "extreme right"[25], but writers on the subject have often found placing fascism on a conventional left-right political spectrum difficult.[26] There is a scholarly consensus that fascism was influenced by both the left and the right.[27] A number of historians have regarded fascism either as a revolutionary centrist doctrine, as a doctrine which mixes philosophies of the left and the right, or as both of those things.[28][29][30]

The historians Eugen Weber,[31] David Renton,[32] and Robert Soucy[33] view fascism as on the ideological right. Rod Stackelberg argues that fascism opposes egalitarianism (particularly racial) and democracy, which according to him are characteristics that make it an extreme right-wing movement.[34] Stanley Payne states that pre-war fascism found a coherent identity through alliances with right-wing movements[35] Roger Griffin argues that since the end of World War II, fascist movements have become intertwined with the radical right, describing certain groups as part of a "fascist radical right".[36][37]

Walter Laqueur says that historical fascism "did not belong to the extreme Left, yet defining it as part of the extreme Right is not very illuminating either", but that it "was always a coalition between radical, populist ('fascist') elements and others gravitating toward the extreme Right".[38] Payne says "fascists were unique in their hostility to all the main established currents, left right and center", noting that they allied with both left and right, but more often the right.[39][40] However, he contends that German Nazism was closer to Russian communism than to any other non-communist system. [41]

The position that fascism is neither right nor left is regarded as credible by a number of contemporary historians, including Seymour Martin Lipset[42] and Roger Griffin.[43] Griffin argued, "Not only does the location of fascism within the right pose taxonomic problems, there are good ground for cutting this particular Gordian knot altogether by placing it in a category of its own "beyond left and right."[44]

On economic issues, fascists reject ideas of class conflict and internationalism, which are commonly held by Marxists and international socialists, in favour of class collaboration and statist nationalism.[45][46] However, Italian fascism also declared its objection to excessive capitalism, which it called supercapitalism.[47] Zeev Sternhell sees fascism as an anti-Marxist form of socialism.[48]

A number of fascist movements described themselves as a "third force" that was outside the traditional political spectrum altogether.[49] Mussolini promoted ambiguity about fascism's positions in order to rally as many people to it as possible, saying fascists can be "aristocrats or democrats, revolutionaries and reactionaries, proletarians and anti-proletarians, pacifists and anti-pacifists".[50] Mussolini claimed that Italian Fascism's economic system of corporatism could be identified as either state capitalism or state socialism, which in either case involved "the bureaucratisation of the economic activities of the nation."[51] Mussolini described fascism in any language he found useful.[50][52] Spanish Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera was critical of both left-wing and right-wing politics, once saying that "basically the Right stands for the maintenance of an economic structure, albeit an unjust one, while the Left stands for the attempt to subvert that economic structure, even though the subversion thereof would entail the destruction of much that was worthwhile".[53]

Roger Eatwell sees terminology associated with the traditional “left-right” political spectrum as failing to fully capture the complex nature of the ideology[54] and many other political scientists have posited multi-dimensional alternatives to the traditional linear left-right spectrum. [55] In some two dimensional political models, such as the Political Compass (where left and right are described in purely economic terms), fascism is ascribed to the economic centre, with its extremism expressing itself on the authoritarianism axis instead.[56]

[edit] Fascist as epithet
Main article: Fascist (epithet)
Following World War II, the word fascist has become a slur throughout the political spectrum. In contemporary political discourse, some adherents of political ideologies on both the left and right wings of the political spectrum associate fascism with their political enemies, or define it as the opposite of their own views. Some argue that the term fascist has become hopelessly vague over the years and that it is now little more than a pejorative epithet. George Orwell wrote in 1944:

The word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless. In conversation, of course, it is used even more wildly than in print. I have heard it applied to farmers, shopkeepers, Social Credit, corporal punishment, fox-hunting, bull-fighting, the 1922 Committee, the 1941 Committee, Kipling, Gandhi, Chiang Kai-Shek, homosexuality, Priestley's broadcasts, Youth Hostels, astrology, women, dogs and I do not know what else... almost any English person would accept ‘bully’ as a synonym for ‘Fascist’. – George Orwell, What is Fascism?. 1944.[57]

Richard Griffiths argued in 2005 that the term fascism is the "most misused, and over-used word of our times".[22]

[edit] Historical causes of the rise of fascism
A variety of views exist on what led to the rise of fascism as an ideology. Common views include that fascism was a response to events during World War I that led to perceived failings of democracy, liberalism, and Marxism for each having favoured either individualism or internationalism at the expense of nations and nationalism.[58][59] In Italy, the perceptions of failures of democratic government within the country, Italian liberalism, and the fears of Italian society having been torn apart by Marxism stimulated the creation and popularity of Italian Fascism.[58]

Fascism presented itself as a radical nationalist alternative to rising Bolshevism that came in the Russian October Revolution of 1917 but it did incorporate government infrastructure aspects of Bolshevism into the ideology, such as the single-party state, the concept of rule by an elite group to represent the masses, and appeals to proletarian workers.[60] With economic problems and unemployment facing recently returned veterans of World War I, fascism appealed to collectivism and honouring soldiers and the military by calling for the end of bourgeois individualism while calling for war on Marxism for its anti-nationalist and perceived anti-patriotic ways.[58]

The creation of the League of Nations after World War I aggravated nationalists in the world, as the League was seen as the imposition of an internationalist political order upon nations.[61] Fascists saw the League of Nations as only benefiting the wealthy, capitalist democracies.[61] Disillusionment with liberalism deepened with the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression and also created nationalist sentiment in opposition to internationalism.[62]

[edit] Core tenets

[edit] Nationalism
Fascists see the struggle of nation and race as fundamental in society, in opposition to communism's perception of class struggle[63] and in opposition to capitalism's focus on the value of productivity and individualism.[citation needed] The nation is seen in fascism as a single organic entity which binds people together by their ancestry and is seen as a natural unifying force of people.[64][citation needed]

Fascism seeks to solve existing economic, political, and social problems by achieving a millenarian national rebirth, exalting the nation or race above all else, and promoting cults of unity, strength and purity.[24][44][65] [66][67] Benito Mussolini stated in 1922, "For us the nation is not just territory but something spiritual... A nation is great when it translates into reality the force of its spirit."[68]

Eoin O'Duffy, an Irish national corporatist, stated in 1934,

We must lead the people always; nationally, socially and economically. We must clear up the economic mess and right the glaring social injustices of to-day by the corporative organization of Irish life; but before everything we must give a national lead to our people...The first essential is national unity. We can only have that when the Corporative system is accepted. We shall put our National programme to the people, and it is a programme in which even the most advanced Nationalist can find nothing to disturb him.[69]

Joseph Goebbels described the Nazis as being affiliated with authoritarian nationalism:

It enables us to see at once why democracy and Bolshevism, which in the eyes of the world are irrevocably opposed to one another, meet again and again on common ground in their joint hatred of and attacks on authoritarian nationalist concepts of State and State systems. For the authoritarian nationalist conception of the State represents something essentially new. In it the French Revolution is superseded.[70]

Plínio Salgado, leader of the Brazilian Integralist Action party emphasized the role of the nation:

The best governments in the world cannot succeed in pulling a country out of the quagmire, out of apathy, if they do not express themselves as national energies...Strong governments cannot result either from conspiracies or from military coups, just as they cannot come out of the machinations of parties or the Machiavellian game of political lobbying. They can only be born from the actual roots of the Nation.[71]

[edit] Foreign policy
Italian fascists described expansionist imperialism as a necessity. The 1932 Italian Encyclopedia stated: "For Fascism, the growth of empire, that is to say the expansion of the nation, is an essential manifestation of vitality, and its opposite a sign of decadence."[72]

Similarly the Nazis promoted territorial expansionism to in their words provide "living space" to the German nation.[73] Fascists oppose pacifism and believe that a nation must have a warrior mentality.[74] Benito Mussolini spoke of war idealistically as a source of masculine pride, and spoke of pacifism in negative terms:

War alone brings up to their highest tension all human energies and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have the courage to meet it. Fascism carries this anti-pacifist struggle into the lives of individuals. It is education for combat...war is to man what maternity is to the woman. I do not believe in perpetual peace; not only do I not believe in it but I find it depressing and a negation of all the fundamental virtues of a man.[75]

Joseph Goebbels of the Nazi Party compared World War II to childbirth, and described war as a positive transformative experience:

Every birth brings pain. But amid the pain there is already the joy of a new life. It is a sign of sterility to shy away from new life on the account of pain[...] Our age too is an act of historical birth, whose pangs carry with them the joy of richer life to come. The significance of the war has grown as its scale has increased. It is relentlessly at work, shattering old forms and ideas, and directing the eyes of human beings to new, greater objectives.[76]

[edit] Authoritarianism
All fascist movements advocate the creation of an authoritarian government that is an autocratic single-party state led by a charismatic leader with the powers of a dictator.[citation needed] Many fascist movements support the creation of a totalitarian state. The Italian Doctrine of Fascism states: "The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value. Thus understood, Fascism is totalitarian, and the Fascist State—a synthesis and a unit inclusive of all values—interprets, develops, and potentiates the whole life of a people."[77] Political theorist Carl Schmitt, as a Nazi party member, published The Legal Basis of the Total State in 1935, describing the Nazi regime's intention to form a totalitarian state:

The recognition of the plurality of autonomous life would, however, immediately lead back to a disastrous pluralism tearing the German people apart into discrete classes and religious, ethnic, social, and interest groups if it were not for a strong state which guarantees a totality of political unity transcending all diversity. Every political unity needs a coherent inner logic underlying its institutions and norms. It needs a unified concept which gives shape to every sphere of public life. In this sense there is no normal State which is not a total State.[78]

Japanese fascist Nakano Seigo described the need for Japan to follow the Italian Fascist and Nazi regimes as a model for Japanese government and declared that a totalitarian society was more democratic than democracies, saying:

Both Fascism and Nazism are clearly different from the despotism of the old period. They do not represent the conservatism which lags behind democracy, but are a form of more democratic government going beyond democracy. Democracy has lost its spirit and decayed into a mechanism which insists only on numerical superiority without considering the essence of human beings. It says the majority is all good. I do not agree, because it is the majority which is the precise cause of contemporary decadence. Totalitarianism must be based on essentials, superseding the rule of numbers.[79]

Some have argued that in spite of Italian fascism's attempt to form a totalitarian state, fascism in Italy devolved to a cult of personality around Mussolini.[80] However, both proponents and opponents of fascism in Italy claimed that it had a clear intention to establish a totalitarian state.[81] Hungarian fascist leader Gyula Gömbös and his Hungarian National Defence Association attempted to form a totalitarian state in Hungary, but that attempt failed after Gömbös' death in 1936.[82] The Nazi regime in Germany has been described as totalitarian by most scholars and critics.[83][84]

A key element of fascism is its endorsement of a prime national leader, who is often known simply as the "Leader" or a similar title, such as: Duce in Italian, Führer in German, Caudillo in Spanish, Poglavnik in Croatia, or Conducător in Romanian. The fascist movement demands obedience to the leader, and may exhort people worship the leader as an infallible saviour of the people.[citation needed] Fascist leaders who ruled countries were not always heads of state, but heads of government, such as Benito Mussolini, who held power under the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.

[edit] Social Darwinism
Fascist movements have commonly held social darwinist views of nations, races, and societies.[74] Italian Fascist Alfredo Rocco shortly after World War I claimed that conflict was inevitable in society:

Conflict is in fact the basic law of life in all social organisms, as it is of all biological ones; societies are formed, gain strength, and move forwards through conflict; the healthiest and most vital of them assert themselves against the weakest and less well adapted through conflict; the natural evolution of nations and races takes place through conflict. Alfredo Rocco[85]

Italian Fascist philosopher Giovanni Gentile in The Origins and Doctrine of Fascism promoted the concept of conflict being an act of progress by stating that "mankind only progresses through division, and progress is achieved through the clash and victory of one side over another".[85]

Fascist movements commonly follow the social Darwinist view that in order for nations and races to survive in a world defined by perpetual national and racial conflict, nations and races must purge themselves of socially and biologically weak or degenerate people while simultaneously promoting the creation of strong people.[86]

In Germany, the Nazis utilized social Darwinism to promote their racialist concept of the German nation as being part of the Aryan race and the need for the Aryan race to be strong in order to be victorious in what the Nazis believed was ongoing competition and conflict between different races.[87]

The Nazis attempted to strengthen the Aryan race in Germany by murdering those they regarded as weaker. To this end, the T4 project was introduced in the late 1930s and organized the murders of around roughly 275,000 handicapped and elderly German civilians using carbon monoxide gas. [88]

More recently, Enzo Traverso, Dan Jakopovich and others have argued that far right and fascist ideologies prosper in a climate of "neoliberal social Darwinism".[89]

[edit] Social interventionism
Generally fascist movements endorse social interventionism dedicated to influencing society to promote the state's interests.[citation needed] Some scholars say that one cannot speak of “fascist social policy” as a single concept with logical and internally consistent ideas and common identifiable goals.[90]

Different fascist movements have spoken of creating a "new man" and a "new civilization" as part of their intention to transform society.[91] Mussolini promised a “social revolution” for “remaking” the Italian people.[92] Hitler promised to purge Germany of non-Aryan influences on society and create a pure Aryan race through eugenics.

[edit] Indoctrination
Fascist states have pursued policies of indoctrination of society to their fascist movements such as through propaganda deliberately spread through education and media through regulation of the production of education and media material.[93][94] Education was designed to glorify the fascist movement, inform students of it being of major historical and political importance to the nation, attempted to purge education of ideas that were not consistent with the beliefs of the fascist movement, and taught students to be obedient to the fascist movement.[95]

Thus fascism tends to be anti-intellectual.[96] The Nazis in particular despised intellectuals and university professors. Hitler declared them unreliable, useless and even dangerous.[97] Hitler said of them: "When I take a look at the intellectual classes we have - unfortunately, I suppose, they are necessary; otherwise one could one day, I don't know, exterminate them or something - but unfortunately they're necessary."[98]

[edit] Abortion, eugenics and euthanasia
The Fascist government in Italy banned literature on birth control and increased penalties on abortion in 1926, declaring them both crimes against the state.[99] The Nazis decriminalized abortion in cases where fetuses had hereditary defects or were of a race the government disapproved of, while the abortion of healthy "pure" German, "Aryan" unborn remained strictly forbidden.[100] For non-Aryans, abortion was not only allowed, but often compelled.[101] Their eugenics program stemmed also from the "progressive biomedical model" of Weimar Germany.[102]

In 1935 Nazi Germany expanded the legality of abortion by amending its eugenics law, to promote abortion for women who have hereditary disorders.[103] The law allowed abortion if a woman gave her permission, and if the fetus was not yet viable,[104][105] and for purposes of so-called racial hygiene.[106][107] The security chief of the neo-Nazi group Aryan Nations expressed similar views, stating: "I’m just against abortion for the pure white race. For blacks and other mongrelized races, abortion is a good idea."[108]

[edit] Culture and gender roles
Fascism tends to promote principles of masculine heroism, militarism, and discipline; and rejects cultural pluralism and multiculturalism.[109]

Initially Italian Fascism officially stood in favour of expanding voting rights to women. In 1920 Mussolini declared that "Fascists do not belong to the crowd of the vain and skeptical who undervalue women's social and political importance. Who cares about voting? You will vote!".[110] Women were briefly given the right to vote until 1925 when the Italian Fascist government abolished elections.[110]

Benito Mussolini perceived women's primary role as childbearers while men should be warriors, once saying "war is to man what maternity is to the woman".[111] The Italian Fascist government during the "Battle for Births" gave financial incentives to women who raised large families as well as policies designed to reduce the number of women employed to allow women to give birth to larger numbers of children.[112]

In 1934, Benito Mussolini declared that employment of women was a "major aspect of the thorny problem of unemployment" which Italy was facing at the time and said that women having a habit of working was "incompatible with childbearing".[113] Mussolini went on to say that the solution to unemployment for men was the "exodus of women from the work force".[114] Italian Fascism called for women to be honoured as "reproducers of the nation" and the Italian Fascist government held ritual ceremonies to honour women's role within the Italian nation.[115]

In the 1920s, the Italian Fascist government's Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) allowed working women to attend various entertainment and recreation events including sports that in the past had traditionally been played by men.[116] The Italian Fascist regime was criticized by the Roman Catholic Church that claimed that these activities were causing "masculinization" of women.[117] The Italian Fascist regime responded to such criticism by restricting women to only being allowed to take part "feminine" and "womanly" sports, while forbidding them to be part of sports that were played mostly by men.[117]

The British Union of Fascists believed that it was unnatural for women to have more influence in a relationship with a man.[118] After Oswald Mosley was arrested in 1940, during interrogation he declared that the British Fascists were committed to equality of the sexes and commended women's role in the British Fascist movement, claiming that the movement had "been largely built up by the fanaticism of women...Without the women I could not have got a quarter of the way...".[119] It is believed that women accounted for 20 per cent to one-third of the British Union of Fascists' membership.[119]

Nazi policies toward women strongly encouraged them to stay at home to bear children and keep house.[120] This policy was reinforced by bestowing the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babies. The unemployment rate was cut substantially, mostly through arms production and sending women home so that men could take their jobs. Nazi propaganda sometimes promoted premarital and extramarital sexual relations, unwed motherhood, and divorce. At other times the Nazis opposed such behaviour.[121] The growth of Nazi power, however, was accompanied by a breakdown of traditional sexual morals with regard to extramarital sex and licentiousness.[122]

Fascist movements and governments oppose homosexuality. The Italian Fascist government declared it illegal in Italy in 1931.[123] The British Union of Fascists opposed homosexuality and pejoratively questioned their opponents' sexual orientation, especially of male anti-fascists.[124] The Romanian Iron Guard opposed homosexuality as undermining society.[125]

The Nazis thought homosexuality was degenerate, effeminate, perverted and undermined the masculinity which they promoted, because it did not produce children.[126] Nevertheless the Nazis considered homosexuality curable through therapy. They explained it though modern scientism and the study of sexology which said that homosexuality could be felt by "normal" people and not just an abnormal minority.[127] Critics have claimed that the Nazis' claim of scientific reasons for their promotion of racism, and hostility to homosexuals is pseudoscience,[128][129] in that scientific findings were selectively picked that promoted their pre-existing views, while scientific findings opposing those views were rejected and not taken into account.

[edit] Economic policies
The neutrality of this article is disputed. Please see the discussion on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved. (April 2009)

Further information: Economics of fascism
Fascists explicitly promoted their ideology as a "Third Position" between capitalism and communism.[130] Italian Fascism involved corporatism, a political system in which economy is collectively managed by employers, workers and state officials by formal mechanisms at national level.[131] Fascists advocated a new national multi-class economic system that is labeled as either national corporatism, national socialism or national syndicalism.[21] The common aim of all fascist movements was elimination of the autonomy or, in some cases, the existence of large-scale capitalism.[132]

Fascist governments exercised influence over the economy differently than that of communist-led states, in that individual private property was controlled but not nationalized.[133] Nevertheless, like the Soviet Union, fascist states pursued economic policies to strengthen state power and spread ideology, such as consolidating trade unions to be state or party-controlled.[134] Attempts were made by both Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany to establish "autarky" (self-sufficiency) through significant economic planning, but both failed to make the two countries self-sufficient.[135]

[edit] National corporatism, national socialism and national syndicalism
While fascists support the unifying of proletariat workers to their cause along corporatistic, socialistic, or syndicalistic lines, fascists specify that they advocate a nationalized form of such economic systems such as corporatism, national socialism, or national syndicalism which promotes the creation of a strong proletarian nation, but not a proletarian class.[136] Fascists also make clear that they have no hostility to the petite bourgeoisie (lower middle-class) or to small businesses and promise these groups protection alongside the proletariat from the upper-class bourgeoisie, big business, and Marxism. The promotion of these groups is the source of the term 'extremism of the centre' to describe fascism.[137]

Fascism blames capitalist liberal democracies for creating class conflict and in turn blames communists for exploiting class conflict.[9] In Italy, the Fascist period presided over the creation of the largest number of state-owned enterprises in Western Europe such as the nationalization of petroleum companies in Italy into a single state enterprise called the Italian General Agency for Petroleum (Azienda Generale Italiani Petroli, AGIP).[138] Fascists made populist appeals to the middle class (especially the lower middle class) by promising to protect small business and small property owners from communism, and by promising an economy based on competition and profit while pledging to oppose big business.[137]

On economic issues, Benito Mussolini in 1933 declared Italian Fascism's opposition to "decadent capitalism" that he claimed prevailed in the world at the time, but did not denounce capitalism entirely. Mussolini claimed that capitalism had degenerated in three stages, starting with dynamic or heroic capitalism (1830–1870) followed by static capitalism (1870–1914) and then reaching its final form of decadent capitalism, also known as supercapitalism beginning in 1914.[47] Mussolini argued that Italian Fascism was in favour of dynamic and heroic capitalism for its contribution to industrialism and technical developments but claimed that it did not favour supercapitalism, which he claimed was incompatible with Italy's agricultural sector.[47]

Thus Mussolini claimed that Italy under Fascist rule was not capitalist in the modern use of the term which referred to supercapitalism.[47] Mussolini denounced supercapitalism for causing the "standardization of humankind" and for causing excessive consumption.[139] Mussolini claimed that at this stage of supercapitalism "[it] is then that a capitalist enterprise, when difficulties arise, throws itself like a dead weight into the state's arms. It is then that state intervention begins and becomes more necessary. It is then that those who once ignored the state now seek it out anxiously."[140] Mussolini went on to claim that Fascism was the next logical step to solve the problems of supercapitalism and claimed that this step could be seen either as a form of capitalism or socialism which involved state intervention, saying "our path would lead inexorably into state capitalism, which is nothing more nor less than state socialism turned on its head. In either event, [whether the outcome be state capitalism or state socialism] the result is the bureaucratization of the economic activities of the nation."[51]

Some fascists were indifferent or hostile to corporatism. The Nazis initially attempted to form a corporatist economic system like that in Fascist Italy, and created the National Socialist Institute for Corporatism in May 1933, which included many major economists who argued that corporatism was consistent with National Socialism.[141][142]. In Mein Kampf, Hitler spoke enthusiastically about the "National Socialist corporative idea" as one which would eventually "take the place of ruinous class warfare"[143] However, the Nazis later believed that corporatism was not beneficial to Germany because they deemed that it institutionalized and legitimized social differences within the German nation and instead the Nazis went on to promote economic organizations that emphasized the biological unity of the German national community.[144]

Hitler had temporarily been interested in corporatism, but later just used it as a propaganda device, as corporatism was not put into place, even though a number of Nazi officials such as Walther Darré, Gottfried Feder, Alfred Rosenburg, and Gregor Strasser were in favour of a neo-medievalist form of corporatism, as corporations had been influential in German people's history in the medieval era.[145] Spanish Falangist leader José Antonio Primo de Rivera did not believe that corporatism was effective and denounced it as a propaganda ploy, saying "This stuff about the corporative state is another piece of windbaggery".[146]

[edit] Economic planning
Fascists opposed laissez-faire economic policies dominant in the era prior to the Great Depression.[147] After the Great Depression began, many people from across the political spectrum blamed laissez-faire capitalism for the Great Depression, and fascists promoted their ideology as a "third way" between capitalism and communism.[148]

Fascists declared their opposition to finance capitalism, interest charging, and profiteering.[149] Nazis and other anti-Semitic fascists, considered finance capitalism a "parasitic" "Jewish conspiracy".[150] Fascist governments nationalized some key industries, managed their currencies and made some massive state investments.[citation needed] Fascist governments introduced price controls, wage controls and other types of economic interventionist measures.[151]

Other than nationalization of certain industries, private property was allowed, but property rights and private initiative were contingent upon service to the state.[152] For example, "an owner of agricultural land may be compelled to raise wheat instead of sheep and employ more labour than he would find profitable."[153] According to historian Tibor Ivan Berend, dirigisme was an inherent aspect of fascist economies.[154] The Labour Charter of 1927, promulgated by the Grand Council of Fascism, stated in article 7: "The corporative State considers private initiative, in the field of production, as the most efficient and useful instrument of the Nation", then goes on to say in article 9: "State intervention in economic production may take place only where private initiative is lacking or is insufficient, or when are at stakes the political interest of the State. This intervention may take the form of control, encouragement or direct management."[155]

Fascists thought that private property should be regulated to ensure that "benefit to the community precedes benefit to the individual."[156] They also introduced price controls and other types of economic planning measures.[151]

Fascism had Social Darwinist views of human relations and promoted "superior" individuals and saw people who were weak as being inferior.[157] In terms of economic practice, this meant promoting the interests of successful businesses while banning trade unions and other workers' organizations.[158] Benito Mussolini in his English autobiography in one section focused on the economy of the United States where he stated that he agreed with the capitalist notion held by Americans that profit should not be taken away from those who produced it from their own labour for any purpose, saying "I do not respect—I even hate—those men that leech a tenth of the riches produced by others".[159]

[edit] Social welfare
Benito Mussolini promised a "social revolution" that would "remake" the Italian people, which was only achieved in part.[160] The people who primarily benefited from Italian fascist social policies were members of the middle and lower-middle classes, who filled jobs in the vastly expanding government workforce, which grew from about 500,000 to a million jobs in 1930.[160] Health and welfare spending grew dramatically under Italian fascism, with welfare rising from seven percent of the budget in 1930 to 20% in 1940.[161]

A major success in social welfare policy in Fascist Italy was the creation of the Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro (OND) or "National After-work Program" in 1925. The OND was the state's largest recreational organizations for adults.[162] The Dopolavoro was responsible for establishing and maintaining 11,000 sports grounds, over 6,400 libraries, 800 movie houses, 1,200 theatres, and over 2,000 orchestras.[162] Membership in the Dopolavoro was voluntary but had high participation because of its nonpolitical nature.[162] It is estimated that by 1936 the OND had organized 80 percent of salaried workers.[163] Nearly 40 percent of the industrial workforce had been recruited into the Dopolavoro by 1939 and the sports activities proved popular with large numbers of workers. The OND had the largest membership of any of the mass Fascist organizations in Italy.[164]

The enormous success of the Dopolavoro in Fascist Italy was the key factor in Nazi Germany creating its own version of the Dopolavoro, the Kraft durch Freude (KdF) or "Strength through Joy" program of the Nazi government's German Labour Front, which was even more successful than the Dopolavoro.[165] KdF provided government-subsidized holidays for German workers.[166] KdF was also responsible for the creation of the original Volkswagen ("People's Car") that was a state-made automobile that was meant to be cheap enough to allow all German citizens to be able to own one.

While fascists promote social welfare for ameliorating negative economic conditions that are affecting their nation or race as whole, they do not support social welfare for egalitarian reasons. Fascists abhor egalitarianism for preserving the weak; they promote social Darwinist views and claim that nations and races must preserve and promote their strengths to ensure survival in a world that is in a perpetual state of national and/or racial conflict and competition.[167][168][169][170]

Adolf Hitler was opposed to egalitarian and universal social welfare because, in his view, it encouraged the preservation of the degenerate and feeble.[171] While in power, the Nazis created social welfare programs to deal with the large numbers of unemployed. However, those programs were neither egalitarian nor universal, but instead residual, as they excluded multiple minority groups and certain other people whom they felt were incapable of helping themselves, and who would pose a threat to the future health of the German people.[172]

[edit] Racism and racialism
Fascists are not unified on the issues of racism and racialism. Mussolini, in a 1919 speech to denounce Soviet Russia, claimed that Jewish bankers in London and New York City were bound by the chains of race to Moscow, and claimed that 80 percent of the Soviet leaders were Jews.[173] In his 1920 autobiography, he said: "Race and soil are strong influences upon us all", and said of World War I: "There were seers who saw in the European conflict not only national advantages but the possibility of a supremacy of race".[174] In a 1921 speech in Bologna, Mussolini stated that "Fascism was born... out of a profound, perennial need of this our Aryan and Mediterranean race".[173] He said in 1928:

[When the] city dies, the nation — deprived of the young life — blood of new generations — is now made up of people who are old and degenerate and cannot defend itself against a younger people which launches an attack on the now unguarded frontiers[...] This will happen, and not just to cities and nations, but on an infinitely greater scale: the whole White race, the Western race can be submerged by other coloured races which are multiplying at a rate unknown in our race.[175]

Many Italian fascists held anti-Slavist views, especially against neighbouring Yugoslav nations, whom the Italian fascists saw as being in competition with Italy, which had claims on territories of Yugoslavia, particularly Dalmatia.[176] Mussolini claimed that Yugoslavs posed a threat after Italy did not receive the territory along the Adriatic coast at the end of World War I, as promised by the 1915 Treaty of London. He said: "The danger of seeing the Jugo-Slavians settle along the whole Adriatic shore had caused a bringing together in Rome of the cream of our unhappy regions. Students, professors, workmen, citizens—representative men—were entreating the ministers and the professional politicians.[177] Italian fascists accused Serbs of having "atavistic impulses", and of being part of a "social democratic, masonic Jewish internationalist plot".[178] The fascists accused Yugoslavs of conspiring together on behalf of "Grand Orient masonry and its funds".

In 1933, Mussolini contradicted his earlier statements on race, saying: "Race! It is a feeling, not a reality: ninety-five percent, at least, is a feeling. Nothing will ever make me believe that biologically pure races can be shown to exist today. ... National pride has no need of the delirium of race."[179]

[edit] Relation to religion
The attitude of fascism toward religion has run the gamut from persecution, to denunciation, to cooperation,[180] to embrace.[181] Stanley Payne notes that fundamental to fascism was the foundation of a purely materialistic "civic religion" that would "displace preceding structures of belief and relegate supernatural religion to a secondary role, or to none at all", and that "though there were specific examples of religious or would-be 'Christian fascists,' fascism presupposed a post-Christian, post-religious, secular, and immanent frame of reference."[182]

According to Payne, such "would be" religious fascists only gain hold where traditional belief is weakened or absent, as fascism seeks to create new non-rationalist myth structures for those who no longer hold a traditional view.[183] The rise of modern secularism in Europe and Latin America, and the incursion and large-scale adoption of western secular culture in the mid-east leave a void where this modern secular ideology, sometimes under a religious veneer, can take hold.[183]

Many fascists were anti-clerical in both private and public life.[184] Although both Hitler and Mussolini were anti-clerical, they both understood that it would be rash to begin their Kulturkampfs prematurely, such a clash, possibly inevitable in the future, being put off while they dealt with other enemies.[185] Hitler had a general plan, even before the Nazis' rise to power, to destroy Christianity within the Reich.[186][187][188]

The leader of the Hitler Youth stated "the destruction of Christianity was explicitly recognized as a purpose of the National Socialist movement" from the start, but "considerations of expedience made it impossible" publicly to express this extreme position.[186] In Mexico, the Red Shirts were vehemently atheist, renounced religion, killed priests, and on one occasion gunned down Catholics as they left Mass.[189][190][191][192][193]

According to a biographer of Mussolini, "Initially, fascism was fiercely anti-Catholic" — the Church being a competitor for dominion of the people's hearts.[194] Mussolini, originally an atheist, published anti-Catholic writings and planned for the confiscation of Church property, but eventually moved to accommodation.[180] Mussolini endorsed the Roman Catholic Church for political legitimacy, as during the Lateran Treaty talks, Fascist Party officials engaged in bitter arguments with Vatican officials and put pressure on them to accept the terms that the regime deemed acceptable.[195] Protestantism in Italy was not as significant as Catholicism, and the Protestant minority was persecuted.[196] Mussolini's sub-secretary of Interior, Bufferini-Guidi issued a memo closing all houses of worship of the Italian Pentecostals and Jehovah's Witnesses, and imprisoned their leaders.[197] In some instances, people were killed because of their faith.[198]

The Ustaše in Croatia had strong Catholic overtones, with some clerics in positions of power.[199] The fascist movement in Romania, known as the Iron Guard or the Legion of Archangel Michael, preceded its meetings with a church service, and their demonstrations were usually led by priests carrying icons and religious flags.[citation needed] The Romanian fascist movement promoted a cult of "suffering, sacrifice and martyrdom."[200][201]

In Latin America, the most notable fascist movement was Plinio Salgado's Brazilian Integralism. Built on a network of lay religious associations, its vision was of an integral state that "comes from Christ, is inspired in Christ, acts for Christ, and goes toward Christ."[202][203][204] Salgado criticised the "dangerous pagan tendencies of Hitlerism".[205]

Hitler and the Nazi regime attempted to found their own version of Christianity called Positive Christianity which made major changes in its interpretation of the Bible which said that Jesus Christ was the son of God, but was not a Jew; they further claimed that Christ despised Jews, and that the Jews were the ones solely responsible for his death.[citation needed] By 1940, however, it was public knowledge that Hitler had abandoned even the syncretist idea of a positive Christianty.[206]

The Catholic Church was particularly suppressed by Nazis in Poland. In addition to the deaths of some 3 million Polish Jews, 2 million Polish Catholics were killed.[207] Between 1939 and 1945, an estimated 3,000 polish clergy (18 percent) were murdered; of these, 1,992 died in concentration camps.[207] In the annexed territory of Reichsgau Wartheland it was even harsher than elsewhere. Churches were systematically closed, and most priests were either killed, imprisoned, or deported to the General Government.

The Germans also closed seminaries and convents persecuting monks and nuns throughout Poland. Eighty percent of the Catholic clergy and five of the bishops of Warthegau were sent to concentration camps in 1939; in Chełmno, 48 percent.[207] Of those murdered by the Nazi regime, 108 are regarded as blessed martyrs.[207] Among them, Maximilian Kolbe was canonized as a saint. Not only in Poland were Christians persecuted by the Nazis. In the Dachau concentration camp alone, 2,600 Catholic priests from 24 different countries were killed.[207]

One theory is that religion and fascism could never have a lasting connection because both are a "holistic weltanschauung" claiming the whole of the person. [180] Along these lines, Yale political scientist, Juan Linz and others have noted that secularization had created a void which could be filled by a total ideology, making totalitarianism possible[208][209], and Roger Griffin has characterized fascism as a type of anti-religious political religion.[210] Such political religions vie with existing religions, and try, if possible, to replace or eradicate them. [209]

[edit] Variations and subforms
See also: European fascist ideologies
Movements identified by scholars as fascist hold a variety of views, and what qualifies as fascism is often a hotly contested subject. The original movement which self-identified as Fascist was that of Benito Mussolini and his National Fascist Party. Intellectuals such as Giovanni Gentile produced The Doctrine of Fascism and founded the ideology.

The majority of strains which emerged after the original fascism, but are sometimes placed under the wider usage of the term, self-identified their parties with different names. Major examples include; Falangism, Integralism, Iron Guard and Nazism as well as various other designations.[211]

[edit] Italian Fascism
Main article: Italian Fascism
See also: The Doctrine of Fascism, Actual Idealism, and March on Rome

Benito MussoliniFascism was born during a period of social and political unrest following World War I. The war had seen Italy begin to feel a sense of nationalism, rather than its historic regionalism.[212] Despite being an Allied Power, Italy was given what nationalists considered an unfair deal at the Treaty of Versailles.[212]

When the other allies told Italy to hand over the city of Fiume at the Paris Peace Conference, war veteran Gabriele d'Annunzio declared the independent state there, the Italian Regency of Carnaro.[213] He named himself Duce of the nation and declared a constitution, the Charter of Carnaro, which was highly influential to early Fascism, though he himself never became a fascist.[213]

Flag of the National Fascist Party.Benito Mussolini founded Italian fascism as the Fasci italiani di combattimento after he returned from World War I, and published a Fascist manifesto. The birth of the Fascist movement can be traced to a meeting he held in the Piazza San Sepolcro in Milan on March 23, 1919, which declared the original principles of the Fascists through a series of declarations.[214]

These included a dedication to Italian war veterans,[215] a declaration of the fascists' loyalty to Italy and its opposition to foreign aggressors, a pronouncment that the fascists would fight against other political factions and a declaration of opposition to bolshevism and socialism, particularly the socialism of the Italian Socialist Party. They also declared their intention to seize power and their opposition to the multiparty representative democracy in Italy.

The fascists took a moderate stance on the economy, effectively declaring that they favoured class collaboration while opposing excessive state intervention into the economy, and calling for pressure on industrialists and workers to be cooperative and constructive, saying:

“ As for economic democracy, we favour national syndicalism and reject State intervention whenever it aims at throttling the creation of wealth.[216] ”

Mussolini and the fascists were simultaneously revolutionary and traditionalist.[217][218] because this was vastly different from anything else in the political climate of the time, it is sometimes described as "The Third Way".[219] The Fascisti, led by one of Mussolini's close confidants, Dino Grandi, formed armed squads of war veterans called Blackshirts (or squadristi) with the goal of restoring order. The blackshirts clashed with communists, socialists and anarchists at parades and demonstrations. The government rarely interfered with the blackshirts' actions, due in part to a widespread fear of a Communist revolution.

The Fascisti grew so rapidly that within two years, it transformed itself into the National Fascist Party at a congress in Rome. Also in 1921, Mussolini was elected to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time and was later appointed as Prime Minister by the King in 1922. He then went on to install a dictatorship after 10 June 1924 assassination of anti-fascist writer Giacomo Matteotti by agents of the Mussolini's Ceka secret police.

Mussolini's colonialism reached further into Africa in an attempt to compete with British and French colonial empires.[220] Mussolini spoke of making Italy a nation that was "great, respected and feared" throughout Europe, and indeed the world. An early example was his bombardment of Corfu in 1923. Soon after he succeeded in setting up a puppet regime in Albania and forcibly ended a rebellion in Libya, which had been a colony (loosely) since 1912. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean mare nostrum ("our sea" in Latin).

[edit] Nazism (Germany)
Main article: Nazism

Flag of the German Nazi PartyThe National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) ruled Germany from 1933 until 1945. After Benito Mussolini's successful March on Rome in 1922, German Nazi leader Adolf Hitler grew to admire him, and soon the Nazis presented themselves as a German version of Italian Fascism.[221][222] Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's chief propagandist, credited Italian Fascism with starting a conflict against liberal democracy, saying,

The march on Rome was a signal, a sign of storm for liberal-democracy. It is the first attempt to destroy the world of the liberal-democratic spirit[...] which started in 1789 with the storm on the Bastille and conquered one country after another in violent revolutionary upheavals, to let... the nations go under in Marxism, democracy, anarchy and class warfare..."[223]

Following the Italians' example, the Nazis attempted a "March on Berlin" to topple the Weimar Republic, which they characterised as "Marxist" (in reality, it was social democratic).[223] A month after Mussolini had risen to power, amid claims by the Nazis that they were equivalent to the Italian fascists, Hitler's popularity in Germany began to grow, and large crowds began to attend Nazi rallies. The newspaper Berlin Lokal-Anzeiger featured a front page article about Hitler, saying "There are a lot of people who believe him to be the German Mussolini".[221]

Adolf Hitler, German Nazi leaderIn private, Mussolini expressed dislike of Hitler and the Nazis, seeing them as mere imitators of Italian Fascism. When Mussolini met with the Italian Consul in Munich prior to the Nazis' failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, he stated that the Nazis were "buffoons".[224]

The Nazis gained political power in Germany's government through a democratic election in 1932. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany following the 1933 election, subsequently putting into place the Enabling Act of 1933, which effectively gave him the power of a dictator. The Nazis announced a national rebirth, in the form of the Third Reich, nicknamed the Thousand Year Empire, promoted as a successor to the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire.

Although the modern consensus sees Nazism as a type of generic fascism,[225] some scholars, including Gilbert Allardyce, Zeev Sternhell, Karl Dietrich Bracher and A.F.K. Organski, argue that Nazism is not fascism – either because it is different in character or because they believe fascism cannot be generically defined.[226][227][228] Nazism differed from Italian fascism in that it had a stronger emphasis on race, especially exhibited as antisemitism. Roger Griffin, a leading exponent of the generic fascism theory, wrote:

"It might well be claimed that Nazism and Italian fascism were separate species within the same genus, without any implicit assumption that the two species ought to be well-nigh identical. Ernst Nolte has stated that the differences could be easily reconciled by employing a term such as 'radical fascism' for Nazism. ... The establishment of fundamental generic characteristics linking Nazism to movements in other parts of Europe allows further consideration on a comparative basis of the reasons why such movements were able to become a real political danger and gain power in Italy and Germany, whereas in other European countries they remained an unpleasant, but transitory irritant..."[229]

Sternhell views Nazism as separate from fascism:

Fascism can in no way be identified with Nazism. Undoubtedly the two ideologies, the two movements, and the two regimes had common characteristics. They often ran parallel to one another or overlapped, but they differed on one fundamental point: the criterion of German national socialism was biological determination. The basis of Nazism was a racism in its most extreme sense, and the fight against Jews, against 'inferior' races, played a more preponderant role in it than the struggle against communism.[230]

[edit] Iron Guard (Romania)
Main article: Iron Guard

Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
Symbol of the Iron Guard .The Iron Guard was an antisemitic fascist movement and political party in Romania from 1927 to 1941.[231] It was briefly in power from September 14, 1940 until January 21, 1941. It was founded by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu on 24 July 1927 as the "Legion of the Archangel Michael" (Legiunea Arhanghelul Mihail), and it was led by him until his death in 1938.

Adherents to the movement continued to be widely referred to as "legionnaires" (sometimes "legionaries"; Romanian: legionari) and the organization as the "Legion" or the "Legionary Movement" (Mişcarea Legionară), despite various changes of the (intermittently banned) organization's name.

It was strongly anti-Semitic, promoting the idea that "Rabbinical aggression against the Christian world" in "unexpected 'protean forms': Freemasonry, Freudianism, homosexuality, atheism, Marxism, Bolshevism, the civil war in Spain, and social democracy" were undermining society.[232]

The Iron Guard "inserted strong elements of Orthodox Christianity into its political doctrine to the point of becoming one of the rare modern European political movements with a religious ideological structure."[233]

[edit] Falangism (Spain)
Main article: Falangism
See also: Falangism in Latin America and Kataeb Party
Falangism was a form of fascism founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1934, emerging during the Second Spanish Republic.[234] Primo de Rivera was the son of Spain's former dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera. Following the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic Spain went from a kingdom into a republic dominated by left wing poltiicians almost overnight.

Primo de Rivera, inspired by Mussolini, founded the Falange Española party, which merged a year later with the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista party of Ramiro Ledesma and Onésimo Redondo.[235] The party and Primo de Rivera presented the Falange Manifesto in November 1934; it promoted nationalism, unity, glorification of the Spanish Empire and dedication to the national syndicalism economic policy, inspired by integralism in which there is class collaboration. The manifesto supported agrarianism, to improve the standard of living for the peasants of the rural areas, anti-capitalism and anti-Marxism. The Falange participated in the Spanish general election, 1936 with low results compared to the far-left Popular Front, but soon after increased in membership rapidly.

Flag of the FET y de las JONS party.Primo de Rivera was captured by Republicans on 6 July 1936 and held in captivity at Alicante. The Spanish Civil War broke out on 17 July 1936 between the Republicans and the Nationalists, with the Falangistas fighting for Nationalist cause. Despite his incarceration Primo de Rivera was a strong symbol of the cause, referred to as El Ausente, meaning "the Absent One". He was summarily executed on 20 November after a trial by socialists.[236]

General Francisco Franco, already the leader of the rebel Nationalists, took over the leadership of the Falangists. Franco's focus was on victory in the war, and ensuring important flows of material from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, so he was less ideological than his predecessor.[237]

A merger between the Falange and the Carlists took place in 1937, creating the FET y de las JONS, a more traditionalist, conservative party than the original Falagnists, and one which is described by some "authentic" Falangists as a move away from the party's original fascist principles.[234][234][238] Franco balanced several different interests of elements in his party, in an effort to keep them united, especially in regard to the question of monarchy.[239]

Franco's traditionalist, conservative stance means the Francosit regime is not generally considered to be fascist, as it lacked any revolutionary, transformative aspect. [240][241][242][243][244] Stanley Payne, the preeminent scholar on fascism and Spain notes: "scarcely any of the serious historians and analysts of Franco consider the generalissimo to be a core fascist."[245]

The ideas of Falangism were also exported, mainly to parts of the Hispanosphere, especially in South America.[246] In some countries these movements were obscure, in others they had some impact.[246] The Bolivian Socialist Falange under Óscar Únzaga provided significant competition to the ruling government during the 1950s until the 1970s.[247]

In Peru, Catholic activist Luis Fernando Figari attempted to promote the ideals of Falangism, creating the youth Catholic association Sodalitium Christianae Vitae, in which, during the 70's, future members were educated in the official social doctrine of the Church as well in the Falangismo. Falangism was significant in Lebanon through the Kataeb Party and its founder Pierre Gemayel[248], fighting for national independence which was won in 1943.

[edit] Integralism

Integralist FlagBrazilian Integralism (Agáo Integralista Brasileira) was a form of fascism founded by Plinio Salgado in Brazil in October of 1932. It is considered by many historians as the best, and maybe one of the only adaptations of fascist ideals in Latin America. From his magazine, Hierarquía directly inspired on “Gerarchia” from Italy, they persuade a great number of intellectuals to enter the group. In it´s first two years they got 400.000 members, by 1937 they were one of the most important parties in Latin America with one million members.

They took many ideals from fascism instead of the “Italianità” and “Romanità”, in Italy they took the "Brasilianidade". Their ideals were the Corporativism, the Catholicism, and a clearly they were both anti-capitalist, and anti-comunist. They also took formed armed squads, with Green Shirts.

[edit] Para-fascism
Some states and movements have certain characteristics of fascism, but scholars generally agree they are not fascist. Such near-fascist groups are generally anti-liberal, anti-communist and use similar political or paramilitary methods to fascists, but lack fascism's revolutionary goal to create a new national character.[249] Para-fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian regimes with aspects that differentiate them from true fascist states or movements.[250]

Para-fascists typically eschewed radical change and some viewed genuine fascists as a threat.[251] Para-fascist states were often the home of genuine fascist movements, which were sometimes suppressed or co-opted, sometimes collaborated with.[249]

Notable parafascist governments and political groups include[citation needed]:

Estado Novo Portugal.
Military dictatorship in Greece during the cold war (1960s/70s).
Peronism by general Juan Peron of Argentina (1943–55).
Pinochet regime in Chile (1973–89) and its anti-communism.
Suharto regime in Indonesia (1965–97) also authoritarian.
Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath Party regime in Iraq (1963–2003).
Apartheid-era South Africa by the Afrikaans Nationalist Party.

[edit] Austrian Fatherland Front
Main article: Austrofascism

Engelbert Dollfuß
Flag of the Fatherland Front of Austria."Austrofascism" is a controversial category encompassing various para-fascist and semi-fascist movements in Austria in the 1930s.[252] In particular it refers to the Fatherland Front, which became Austria's sole legal political party in 1934. It had an ideology of the "community of the people" (Volksgemeinschaft) that was different from that of the Nazis.

They were similar in that both served to attack the idea of a class struggle, accusing the left of destroying individuality. The leader of the Fatherland Front, Engelbert Dollfuß, claimed he wanted to "out-Hitler" (überhitlern) Nazism.

Unlike the ethnic nationalism promoted by Italian Fascists and Nazis, the Fatherland Front focused entirely on cultural nationalism such as Austrian identity and distinction from Germany, extolling Austria's ties to the Roman Catholic Church. The notion of the Fatherland Front being fascist is usually based on the regime's support for and ideological similarities with of Fascist Italy, but its intensely conservative nationalism is often distinguished from revolutionary fascism.

[edit] Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Japan)

Symbol of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
Fumimaro Konoe founded the Imperial Rule Assistance Association in 1940.The Imperial Rule Assistance Association (Taisei Yokusankai) was a coalition of fascist and nationalist political movements of Japan such as the Imperial Way Faction (Kōdōha) and the Society of the East (Tōhōkai). It was formed under the guidance of Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe who was seeking to unify competing Japanese fascist and nationalist groups to reduce political friction and strengthen relations with the fascist regimes in Germany and Italy.[253][254] Prior to creation of the IRAA, Konoe had already effectively nationalized strategic industries, the news media, and labour unions, in preparation for total war with China.

Konoe's successor, Hideki Tōjō entrenched the IRAA as the country's ruling political movement, and attempted to establish himself as the absolute leader, or Shogun, of Japan. In contrast to European fascism, though, the cult of personality for the movement focused not on the head of government, but on the Emperor of Japan.[253][254]

The IRAA created Tonarigumi (Neighbourhood Association) and youth organisations, in which participation was mandatory. After the 1942 general election, all members of the Japanese parliament were forced to become members of the IRAA, making Japan a single-party state.

The IRAA government promoted Japanese expansionism and imperialism, declaring that Japan would form and lead a "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere".[255]